Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis: the breaking of bilateral symmetry in relation to left-right asymmetry of internal organs, right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and vertebrate evolution.



Burwell, R G and Dangerfield, P H and Freeman, B J C and Aujla, R K and Cole, A A and Kirby, Alanah and Pratt, R K and Webb, J K and Moulton, A (2006) Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis: the breaking of bilateral symmetry in relation to left-right asymmetry of internal organs, right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and vertebrate evolution. In: Research into Spinal Deformities 5. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics (123). IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp. 385-390. ISBN 9781586036300

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Abstract

In the search to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) some workers have focused on mechanisms initiated in embryonic life including a disturbance of bilateral (left-right or mirror-image) symmetry highly conserved in vertebrates. The normal external bilateral symmetry of vertebrates results from a default process involving mesodermal somites. The normal internal asymmetry of the heart, major blood vessels, lungs and gut with its glands is also highly conserved among vertebrates. It results from the breaking of the initial bilateral symmetry by a binary asymmetry switch mechanism producing asymmetric gene expression around the embryonic node and/or in the lateral plate mesoderm. In the mouse this switch occurs during gastrulation by cilia driving a leftward flow of fluid and morphogen(s) at the embryonic node (nodal flow) that favors precursors of the heart, great vessels and viscera on the left. Based on the non-random laterality of thoracic AIS curves, the hypothesis is suggested that an anomaly of the binary asymmetry switch explains the excess of right/left thoracic AIS. Some support for this hypothesis is the prevalence of right and left scoliosis curve laterality associated with situs inversus. There is recent evidence that vertebrates within their bilateralised shell retain an archaic left-right asymmetric visceral body organization evident in thoracic and abdominal organs.

Item Type: Book Section
Divisions: School of Health Sciences > Radiography
Date Deposited: 09 Feb 2010 10:42
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2012 15:52
URI: http://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/1192

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