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dc.rights.licenseAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
dc.contributor.authorBulley, Catherine
dc.contributor.authorTyagi, Vaibhav
dc.contributor.authorCurnow, Eleanor
dc.contributor.authorNicol, Kath
dc.contributor.authorSalisbury, Lisa
dc.contributor.authorStuart, Kim
dc.contributor.authorMcCormack, Brendan
dc.contributor.authorMagowan, Ruth
dc.contributor.authorSagan, Olivia
dc.contributor.authorDewing, Jan
dc.identifierpublisher-id: bmjopen-2021-056568
dc.identifierdoi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-056568
dc.identifier.citationBulley, C., Tyagi, V., Curnow, E., Nicol, K., Salisbury, L., Stuart, K., McCormack, B., Magowan, R., Sagan, O. and Dewing, J. (2022) ‘Support after COVID-19 study: a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to develop recommendations for practice’, BMJ Open, 12(8), p. e056568. Available at:
dc.descriptionFrom BMJ via Jisc Publications Router
dc.descriptionHistory: received 2021-10-28, accepted 2022-05-12, ppub 2022-08, epub 2022-08-26
dc.descriptionPublication status: Published
dc.descriptionFunder: Chief Scientist Office; FundRef:; Grant(s): COV/QMU/20/04
dc.descriptionEleanor Curnow - ORCID: 0000-0001-9332-8248 https//
dc.descriptionJan Dewing - ORCID: 0000-0002-7968-2213 https//
dc.description.abstractObjectives of study stage 1 were to: explore people’s experiences of illness due to COVID-19 while feeling socially isolated or socially isolating; identify perceptions of what would support recovery; and synthesise insights into recommendations for supporting people after COVID-19. Study stage 2 objectives were to engage stakeholders in evaluating these recommendations and analyse likely influences on access to the support identified. Design: A two-stage, multimethod cross-sectional study was conducted from a postpositivist perspective. Stage 1 included an international online survey of people’s experiences of illness, particularly COVID-19, in isolation (n=675 full responses). Stage 2 involved a further online survey (n=43), two tweetchats treated as large online focus groups (n=60 and n=27 people tweeting), two smaller focus groups (both n=4) and one interview (both using MS teams). Setting: Stage 1 had an international emphasis, although 87% of respondents were living in the UK. Stage 2 focused on the UK. Participants: Anyone aged 18+ and able to complete a survey in English could participate. Stage 2 included health professionals, advocates and people with lived experience. Main outcome measures: Descriptive data and response categories derived from open responses to the survey and the qualitative data. Results: Of those responding fully to stage 1 (mean age 44 years); 130 (19%) had experienced COVID-19 in isolation; 45 had recovered, taking a mean of 5.3 (range 1–54) weeks. 85 did not feel they had recovered; fatigue and varied ‘other’ symptoms were most prevalent and also had most substantial negative impacts. Our draft recommendations were highly supported by respondents to stage 2 and refined to produce final recommendations. Conclusions: Recommendations support access to progressive intensity and specialism of support, addressing access barriers that might inadvertently increase health inequalities. Multidisciplinary collaboration and learning are crucial, including the person with COVID-19 and/or Long Covid in the planning and decision making throughout.
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group
dc.rightsLicence for this article starting on 2022-08-26:
dc.rights© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:
dc.sourceeissn: 2044-6055
dc.subjectHealth services research
dc.subjectHealth policy
dc.titleSupport after COVID-19 study: a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to develop recommendations for practice
qmu.authorBulley, Catherine
qmu.authorTyagi, Vaibhav
qmu.authorCurnow, Eleanor
qmu.authorNicol, Kath
qmu.authorSalisbury, Lisa
qmu.authorStuart, Kim
qmu.authorMcCormack, Brendan
qmu.authorMagowan, Ruth
qmu.authorSagan, Olivia
qmu.authorDewing, Jan
qmu.centreCentre for Person-centred Practise Research

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)