|dc.description.abstract||The concept of transformational leadership dimensions with emphasis on public values and supporting collaborative efforts is gaining more attention in the research and practice of leadership (Sun and Anderson 2012; Gerson 2020). Based on the context of the civil service, it is necessary to develop performance measurements to assess key attributes to encourage effective behaviours whilst dealing with the challenges faced in the public sector. There is limited research which focuses on developing a valid and reliable measure of public sector leadership (PSL) and no definitive method of measuring PSL exists. The purpose of this study was to develop a leadership model with sufficient level of reliability and validity for integrative public leadership performance.
The study aimed to define the PSL construct based on extant literature to categorise attributes into four PSL dimensions. This involved generating scale items: using a combination of deductive (literature review) and inductive (modified delphi technique) approaches to develop an item pool (multiple-item scales) to measure different dimensions of the construct. As part of the modified delphi technique, experts were then used to evaluate face and content validity of the scale. The study then involved purifying the scale, based on collecting 116 empirical data to pre-test reliability and factor structure (scale dimensionality) of the scale. Next, the research proceeded to validate the scale by assessing it's validity and reliability. The final PSL scale developed in this study is a four-dimensional, 116 item, seven-response choice frequency scale. The scale includes transformational leadership, civic capacity, public leadership, and integrative public leadership dimensions. The results provided evidence of the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the PSL scale.
The final PSL questionnaire was distributed to 918 respondents, of which 352 were completed, providing a response rate of 38.4% (immediate senior officers and subordinates) at across 8 ministries and a leading public sector agency. The sampling was based on stratified purposive sampling. Results point to recalibrating skills; capability-building priorities related to transformational leadership while civic capacity, public leadership and integrative public leadership remain to be enhanced. In addition, the bureaucracy and multisector work conditions holds implications for skill building and role modelling among public sector leaders who are at the middle and to be expanded to the first level of public sector leaders across ministries and agencies in Malaysia. When public sector leaders who have these new skills and who demonstrate civic capacity, public leadership and transformational leadership attributes in supporting their subordinates will adapt well to the integrative public leadership performance.||en