Factors associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among Lebanese women
Daou, Karim N.
Adib, Salim M.
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Daou, K.N., Bou-Orm, I.R. and Adib, S.M. (2018) ‘Factors associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among Lebanese women’, Women & Health, 58(10), pp. 1124–1134. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2017.1414102.
Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) has become a serious public health threat in the Middle East and beyond. To estimate the prevalence rates of cigarette and WTS among Lebanese women and describe characteristics associated with each behavior. Secondary analysis of women’s health data obtained in a national survey in 2010. Of 2,255 selected women, 78 percent reported no or past long-term WTS. Among the 12 percent of regular waterpipe smokers, 40 percent were light users (mean three waterpipe heads weekly), while 60 percent were heavy users (mean of 11 heads per week). About 70 percent were never or past long-term cigarette smokers. Younger age, location within Greater Beirut (GB) and having professional employment were significantly associated with use of WTS. Older age, GB location, lower education, and ever-married were significantly associated with cigarette smoking. WTS is becoming a socially normative behavior among empowered professional women, who can spare the time and expense to engage in this behavior in easily accessible cafés, which prohibit cigarette smoking. Government, media, and NGO campaigns against smoking should target waterpipe use, not only in Lebanon but also across the Arab world and among Arab communities in the Diaspora with messages different from anti-cigarette campaigns.