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dc.contributor.authorLawson, Eleanor
dc.contributor.authorStuart-Smith, Jane
dc.contributor.authorScobbie, James M.
dc.date.accessioned2018-06-29T15:52:22Z
dc.date.available2018-06-29T15:52:22Z
dc.date.issued2008
dc.identifierER142
dc.identifier.citationLawson, E., Stuart-Smith, J. & Scobbie, J. (2008) Articulatory insights into language variation and change : preliminary findings from an ultrasound study of derhoticization in Scottish English, University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, vol. 14, , ,
dc.identifier.issn1524-9549
dc.identifier.urihttp://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol14/iss2/13/
dc.identifier.urihttps://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/handle/20.500.12289/142
dc.descriptionSELECTED PAPERS FROM NWAV 36
dc.description.abstractScottish English is often cited as a rhotic dialect of English. However, in the 70s and 80s, researchers noticed that postvocalic /r/ was in attrition in Glasgow (Macafee, 1983) and Edinburgh (Romaine, 1978; Johnston and Speitel 1983). Recent research (Stuart-Smith, 2003) confirms that postvocalic /r/ as a canonical phonetically rhotic consonant is being lost in working-class Glaswegian speech. However, auditory and acoustic analysis revealed that the situation was more complicated than simple /r/ vs. zero variation. The derhoticized quality of /r/ seemed to vary socially; in particular male working class speakers often produced intermediate sounds that were difficult to identify. It is clear that although auditory and acoustic analysis are useful, they can only hint at what is going on in the vocal tract. A direct articulatory study is thus motivated. Instrumental phonetic studies that examine the vocal tract during the production of sustained rhotic consonants and in laboratory-based studies of American English /r/ have identified a complex relationship between articulation and acoustics, including articulatory differences with minimal acoustic consequences (starting with Delattre and Freeman, 1968). In other words, different gestural configurations can be used to generate a canonically rhotic consonant. A pilot study (Scobbie and Stuart-Smith, 2006) using Ultrasound Tongue Imaging (UTI) with a Scottish vernacular speaker revealed something rather different: the occurrence of a strong articulatory retroflex tongue motion, which generated little or no rhotic acoustic consequences because it was timed to occur after phonation had ceased, before pause. This tongue motion was found in a speaker who was weakly rhotic. Thus we may have a situation in which acoustic differences with a sociolinguistic function have, in some prosodic contexts, imperceptible articulatory differences in tongue position, though timing will vary. The situation of language variation and change in Scotland means that an articulatory/acoustic study is likely to give very different results to similar studies of rhotic speakers in the USA (Mielke, Twist, and Archangeli, 2006), and be particularly relevant to understanding social variation. Ultrasound is non-invasive and portable and therefore has great potential as an instrumental method for studying aspects of socially stratified variation: articulatory data can be physically collected in every-day social settings. However the technique requires refinement for effective use in recording locations outside the laboratory (e.g. in school, at home), and the potential impact of using the equipment on speech is not known. Gick (2002) suggest methods for fieldwork, but we are not aware of any study which attempts to quantify the effects of the technique on vernacular speakers. Ultrasound is non-invasive and portable and therefore has great potential as an instrumental method for studying aspects of socially stratified variation: articulatory data can be physically collected in every-day social settings. However the technique requires refinement for effective use in recording locations outside the laboratory (e.g. in school, at home), and the potential impact of using the equipment on speech is not known. Gick (2002) suggest methods for fieldwork, but we are not aware of any study which attempts to quantify the effects of the technique on vernacular speakers.
dc.publisherPenn Linguistics Club
dc.relation.ispartofUniversity of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics
dc.titleArticulatory insights into language variation and change : preliminary findings from an ultrasound study of derhoticization in Scottish English
dc.typearticle
dcterms.accessRightspublic
dc.description.facultycasl
dc.description.referencetextAitken, A.J. 1979. Scottish Speech: A historical view with special reference to the Standard English of Scotland.- In Languages of Scotland, ed. A.J. Aitken and T. McArthur. London: Chambers. 85-118. Alwan, Shrikanth A. and Abeer S. Narayanan. 1996. Towards articulatory-acoustic models for liquid approximants based on MRI and EPG data. Part II. The rhotics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 101(2):1078-1989. Delattre, Pierre and Donald C. Freeman. 1968. A Dialect Study of American R's by x-ray motion picture. Linguistics. 44:29-68. Dobson, Eric. J. 1957. English Pronunciation, 1500-1700. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Gick, Bryan 2002. The use of ultrasound for linguistic phonetic fieldwork. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 32(2):113-121. Johnston, Paul, A. 1985. The rise and fall of the Morningside/Kelvinside accent. In Focus on Scotland, ed. by M. Gorlach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Macafee, Caroline 1983. Varieties of English Around the World: Glasgow. Amsterdam: Benjamin. Macafee, Caroline 1997. Ongoing change in modern Scots: The social dimension. In The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, ed. C. Jones. 514-548. Miller-Ockhuizen, Amanda, L. 1999. C-V Coarticulation and Complex Consonants: Evidence for Ordering in click place gestures. In Proceedings of LP '98: Item Order in Language and Speech, ed. O. Fujimura, J. Brian, and P. Bohumil. Prague: Charles University Press. Pollner, Clausdirk. 1985. Englisch in Livingston. Ausgew_hlte sprachliche Erscheinungen in einer schottischen New Town. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Robinson, Christine. 2005. Changes in the dialect of Livingston. Language and Literature, 14:181-193. Romaine, Suzanne. 1979. Postvocalic /r/ in Scottish English: Sound change in progress? In Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, ed. P. Trudgill. Edward Arnold: London. Speitel, Hans-Henning and Johnston, Paul. 1983. ESRC End of Grant Report: A Sociolinguistic Investigation of Edinburgh Speech. Sproat, Richard and Osamu Fujimura. 1993. Allophonic variation in English /l/ and its implications for phonetic implementation. The Journal of Phonetics, 21:291-311. Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2003. The phonology of Modern Urban Scots. In The Edinburgh Companion to Scots, ed. J. Corbett et al. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2005. Is TV a contributory factor in accent change in adolescents? Final Report to the ESRC. Grant No. R000239757. Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2007. A sociophonetic investigation of postvocalic /r/ in Glaswegian adolescents. In The Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Stuart-Smith, Jane, Claire Timmins and Fiona Tweedie. 2007. Talkin' Jockney-: Accent change in Glaswegian. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 11:221-61.
dc.description.volume14
dc.description.ispublishedpub
dc.description.eprintid142
rioxxterms.typearticle
qmu.authorScobbie, James M.
qmu.authorLawson, Eleanor
qmu.centreCASLen
dc.description.statuspub
dc.description.number2


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