How may refined carbohydrates affect satiety and mood?
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Hammersley, R., Reid, M. & Duffy, M. (2007) How may refined carbohydrates affect satiety and mood?, Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 32, , pp. 61-70,
Effects of refined carbohydrates on satiety and mood remain controversial. After a brief review of findings, some conceptual distinctions underlying mood and satiety are discussed; the physiological processes, cognitive processes and behaviours involved all need to be considered. From recent research on emotion and mood, a two-stage model is described of the psychological processes that mediate betweencarbohydrate ingestion, mood rating and food intake. This involves rapid non-conscious appraisal and slower cognitive appraisal. It is concluded that the effects of carbohydrates on subjective state and eating behaviour are fragile and liable to alter as a function of the prior state of an individual and the setting of ingestion.