Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents
Anthony, J. P.
McDougall, G. J.
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Anthony, J., Fyfe, L., Stewart, D. & McDougall, G. (2011) Differential effectiveness of berry polyphenols as anti-giardial agents, Parasitology, vol. 138, , pp. 1110-1116,
Following previous work on the anti-giardial effect of blueberry polyphenols, a range of polyphenol-rich extracts from berries and other fruits was screened for their ability to kill Giardia duodenalis, an intestinal parasite of humans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from berries using solid-phase extraction and applied to trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis grown in vitro. All berry extracts caused inhibition at 166 _g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ml phenol content but extracts from strawberry, arctic bramble, blackberry and cloudberry were as effective as the currently used drug, metronidazole, causing complete trophozoite mortality in vitro. Cloudberry extracts were found to be the most effective causing effectively complete trophozoite mortality at 66 _g GAE/ml. The polyphenol composition of the more effective berry extracts suggested that the presence of ellagitannins could be an important factor. However, the potency of cloudberry could be related to high ellagitannin content but also to the presence of substantial amounts of unconjugated p-coumaric acid and benzoic acid. These in vitro effects occur at concentrations easily achievable in the gut after berry ingestion and we discuss the likelihood that berry extracts could be effective anti-giardial agents in vivo. 2011 Cambridge University Press. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence . The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.