The effects of hypohydration and fatigue on neuromuscular activation performance
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Minshull, C. & James, L. (2013) The effects of hypohydration and fatigue on neuromuscular activation performance, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, vol. 38, , pp. 21-26,
This study investigated the effects of hypohydration by fluid restriction on voluntary and evoked indices of neuromuscular performance at a functional joint angle. Measures of static volitional peak force (2-3-s maximal muscle actions) and evoked peak twitch force, electromechanical delay, and rate of force development were obtained from the knee extensors (30 knee flexion) of 10 males (age, 24 (4) years; height, 1.76 (0.10) m; body mass, 78.7 (9.13) kg (mean (SD))) prior to and immediately following 24 h of (i) euhydration (EU) and (ii) hypohydration (HYP). Neuromuscular performance was also assessed in response to a fatiguing task (3 30-s maximal static knee extensions) following each condition. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed that HYP was associated with a significant 2.1% loss in body mass (p < 0.001) and a 7.8% reduction in volitional peak force (p < 0.05). Following fatigue, data indicated statistically similar levels of impairment to volitional peak force (11.6%, p < 0.01) and rate of force development (21.0%, p < 0.01) between conditions (EU; HYP). No changes to any other indices of performance were observed. The substantive hypohydration-induced deficits to muscle strength at this functional joint angle might convey a decreased performance capability and should be considered by the hypohydrated athlete. Whilst hypohydration did not affect fatigue-related performance of the knee extensors, the additive changes associated with lower baseline levels of strength performance (7.8%) and fatigue (11.6%) coupled with slower rate of muscle force production (from 0-100 ms) following fatigue may present significant challenges to the maintenance of dynamic knee joint stability, particularly at this vulnerable joint position.