Behavioral stuttering treatments are effective but no one treatment approach is more effective over other treatment approaches
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Data sources: Databases up to 2004, PsychINFO, ERIC, MEDLINE, CINHL, C2-SPECTR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Dissertation abstracts. Search terms used stutt*, stam*, therap*, intervene*, fluen*, dysfl*, disfl. Study selection and assessment: Studies were included if (a) the participants were diagnosed as persons who stutter, (b) the treatment method was behavioral, (c) there were outcomes of speech behavior, and (d) the participants were randomly assigned to an experimental and control (or comparison condition) before the intervention. In terms of quality assessment, the following data were extracted from each included study: (a) intervention implemented as described; (b) who administered the outcomes measure; (c) participant recruitment procedure; (d) subject assignment procedure; (e) method of random assignment; and (f) blinding. Two reviewers independently coded each study using separate copies of the article. Disagreements were resolved through discussion between the two raters. If the disagreements persisted, the article was given to a third reviewer until the disagreement was resolved. Participants: Participants diagnosed as people who stutter (PWS), the treatment methods were behavioral, outcomes were measured in terms of speech and participants were randomly assigned to an experimental and control (comparison) condition. Studies with clutterers were excluded. Both children and adults were included. No pharmacological treatments were included. No restriction was imposed on intensity or duration of intervention. Only randomised controlled trials were included. Outcomes: Typically speech production specifically stuttered words or syllables per minute. Independent coding was completed for participant, outcome, treatment and design characteristics. Effect sizes were calculated by subtracting the post-test means of the intervention and control groups and dividing by the pooled standard deviation. Studies were weighted for sample size. The Q statistic was used to assess homogeneity. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out.