Consumer-driven sustainable tourism: towards incospicuos consumption.
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Reino, S. & Schr̦der, M. (2009) Consumer-driven sustainable tourism: towards incospicuos consumption., , , , ,
Introduction Life in the typical affluent modern market economy is associated with high spending power and extensive consumer choice. Social comparison, competition and rivalry at work, and stress all drive consumer choice (Layard, 2005). The resultant status race is invariably associated with conspicuous consumption (Veblen, 1899), i.e. consumption that is demonstrative and signals an individual's position in the social pecking order. Consumer satisfaction with goods, services and experiences is derived from one of several types of consumer value, which are either extrinsically or intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic value may be understood as a means to some end, whereas intrinsic value is enjoyed for its own sake (Holbrook, 1999). Another characteristic of extrinsic value is that it can be pursued deliberately, as is typical for conspicuous consumption. Recreational activities offer opportunities for people to rebalance their lives through less conspicuous consumption, associated with more intrinsic consumer value. However, as intrinsic consumption value is more transitory, less predictable and less self-conscious than extrinsic value, products designed to deliver it present a particular challenge, nowhere more so than in terms of branding and marketing. This is exacerbated where tourism is concerned, because consumption takes place away from the familiar home environment and because it is not routine. Thus the tourist is likely to be in a