Passive and dynamic rotation of the lower limbs in children with diplegic cerebral palsy
van der Linden, Marietta
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van der Linden, M., Hazlewood, M., Hillman, S. & Robb, J. (2006) Passive and dynamic rotation of the lower limbs in children with diplegic cerebral palsy, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, vol. 48, , pp. 176-180,
Rotation characteristics in gait and passive rotation of the lower limbs were evaluated retrospectively in 105 patients with diplegic cerebral palsy (65 males, 40 females; mean age 13y [SD 6y 9mo]; range 4y 4mo-40y 5mo). Of 105 patients, 22 (20.9%) required crutches, sticks, tripods, or a K-walker for their daily ambulation. Twelve (11.5%) patients used a wheelchair or buggy for community distances, e.g. shopping. Significant differences in rotational characteristics were found at the pelvis, hip, knee, and foot between left and right legs. Patients who were more affected on the right (group R, n= 33) or the left side (group L, n= 39) were re-evaluated. There was also a group of patients who were not asymmetrically affected (group S, n= 33). In group L, maximum passive internal rotation was significantly greater on the left side, while no difference between the sides was found in group R. Peak internal rotation in gait was significantly higher on the right side in group R, but did not differ significantly between the sides in group L. Right hindfoot-thigh angle and transmalleolar axis were more external on the right, irrespective of which leg was more affected. These findings may have implications for the early non-operative management of limb posture in infants with diplegia and the surgical management of established lower extremity malrotation.