|dc.identifier.citation||(2017) Comparison of the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of two methods to
measure tibial torsion: the gravity goniometer and the footprint method., no. 31.||
|dc.description.abstract||Aim: To investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the gravity goniometer and
footprint method in measurement of tibial torsion and to investigate the agreement between
the use of the gravity goniometer and the footprint method.
Method: Twenty-two healthy participants (ten male and twelve female) had both footprint
method and gravity goniometer measurements taken by three raters. Data collected
occurred over three days, where participants attended two sessions. Raters and participant
numbers were randomised. One researcher recorder data, to allow for blinding or raters from
their measurements. Data analysis was performed using intraclass correlation coefficient
(ICC) and Bland and Altman limits of agreement, to determine both inter and intra-rater
reliability and agreement between methods.
Results: The intra-rater reliability was excellent for both the gravity goniometer and the
footprint method (0.64 and 0.67 respectively). Bland and Altman showed poor agreement
with 18.82 between gravity goniometer measurements and 24.66 between footprint method.
The inter-rater reliability showed moderate and poor ICC for gravity goniometer and footprint
method (0.46 and 0.28). For agreement of the two methods Bland and Altman's limits of
agreement showed 19.96 between limits of agreement.
Conclusion: The results suggest that both gravity goniometer and footprint method have
excellent intra-rater reliability, and both show poor inter-rater reliability. There is a large
disagreement between methods, showing its lack of clinical suitability to use
interchangeably. Additional research should be carried out to determine further suitability,
and both methods should be compared to a gold standard.||
|dc.publisher||Queen Margaret University||
|dc.title||Comparison of the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of two methods to
measure tibial torsion: the gravity goniometer and the footprint method.||