|dc.description.abstract||The Gulf States are one of the greatest labour-receiving countries and the majority of their foreign workforce are low-skilled migrant workers from Asia. Those migrant workers often risk their health while working in low-paid and hazardous industries in order to gain better incomes than they would in their home countries. The literature review revealed exploitative living and working conditions that led to high rates of occupational injuries and deaths and decreased health status during foreign employment. Female migrant workers suffer increased risks of physical and sexual abuse and violence and their freedom of movement was often limited. Many migrant workers resigned because of those reasons and returned home with ill-health conditions and permanent disabilities. Their access to health care in host countries was not always guaranteed and it was usually controlled by employers. The Kafala sponsorship system is applied in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and it gives the legal responsibility of migrant workers to employers and companies. It has been criticised for failing to protect migrant workers and for allowing employers to take advantage of migrants. Additionally, lack of effective legislation, political will, and monitoring has been acknowledged in the region and it allows the cycle of low-skilled migrant workers exploitation to continue.
Keywords: migrant worker, domestic worker, low-skilled worker, migrant health, occupational health, labour migration, GCC countries, Arab states||en