The effects of curcumin supplementation on physiological and biochemical markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young healthy volunteers: A randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder which caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors which expresses an economic and health burden at both a national and global level, with an estimated 422 million adults worldwide living with diabetes. Currently, type 2 diabetes mellitus is incurable, and its symptoms and progression are managed by dietary and lifestyle modifications in combination with pharmacological therapies; however, these are often associated with adverse contraindications. Curcumin has been used for decades due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Pre-clinical evidence demonstrates that curcumin could be used in pre-diabetes as a preventative medicine to help control the co-morbidities that accompany and give rise to the disease. However, clinical research is limited and inconclusive. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of 7-day curcumin supplementation totaling 1.5g per day on total body fat percentage, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, blood glucose concentration, and total cholesterol, which are characterised by key biochemical and physiological markers, in a group of healthy young individuals. Study Design & Methods: This double-blind, crossover, randomised, placebo-controlled trial included young healthy participants (n=5) which met screening requirements. All subjects were randomly allocated to receive either 1.5g/day curcumin, or matched placebo supplement for 7 days. Following intervention all participants took part in a 7-day wash-out period then groups were swapped for a further 7-day intervention period, so all participants took either the curcumin or the placebo. At all visits body fat percentage, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and oral glucose tolerance were measured. The results from all the visits were compared and analysed to evaluate if curcumin had an effect on the parameters measured. Results: The placebo had no effect on the parameters measured. Decreasing trends were seen post curcumin-intervention in body fat percentage (p=0.846), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.413), oral glucose tolerance (p=0.584), and area under the curve (p=0.177), however, none of the parameters measured displayed statistical significance. Pulse wave velocity (p=0.846) demonstrated a slight but not statistically significant increase; and systolic blood pressure (p=0.844) demonstrated no statistically significant change when comparing baseline measurements to post-curcumin intervention measurements. Conclusion: 7-day curcumin supplementation demonstrated decreasing trends in key biochemical and physiological markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus. No adverse events or side effects were reported throughout the duration of the trial; thus, the study demonstrated that curcumin could be a safe intervention in the pre-diabetic or diabetic population. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Curcumin; Blood glucose, Inflammation; Physiological; Biochemical