Sonicated extracts from the Quorn fermentation co-product as oil-lowering emulsifiers and foaming agents
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Lonchamp, J., Akintoye, M., Clegg, P. & Euston, S. (2020) Sonicated extracts from the Quorn fermentation co-product as oil-lowering emulsifiers and foaming agents. European Food Research and Technology, 246(4), pp. 767-780.
This study assessed the impact of sonication on the structure and properties of a functional extract (retentate 100 or R100) from the Quorn fermentation co-product (centrate). In a previous study we reported that the R100 fraction displayed good foaming, emulsifying and rheological properties. Sonication of a R100 solution led to the breakdown of the large hyphal structures characteristic of this extract into smaller fragments. Foams prepared with sonicated R100 displayed a higher foaming ability than with untreated R100 and a high foam stability but lower than untreated R100 ones. Oil-in-water emulsions prepared with sonicated R100 displayed smaller oil droplet size distributions than with untreated R100. Confocal micrographs suggested that small fungal fragments contributed to the stabilisation of oil droplets. 50% oil-reduced R100 emulsions were prepared by mixing R100 emulsions (untreated or sonicated) with a sonicated R100 solution at a 1:1 ratio. Smaller oil droplet size distributions were reported for the oil-reduced emulsions. These results showed that the addition of small hyphal fragments or surface-active molecules and molecular aggregates released during sonication contributed to the formation and stabilisation of smaller oil droplets. This study highlighted the potential to modulate the structure, emulsifying and foaming properties of functional extracts from the Quorn fermentation co-product by sonication and the potential of these extracts as oil-lowering agents in emulsion-based products through the reduction of oil droplet size and their stabilisation.