Space-time analysis and mapping of prevalence rate of tuberculosis in Ghana
Abdul, Iddrisu Wahab
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Abdul, I. W., Ankamah, S., Iddrisu, A. & Danso, E. (2020) Space-time analysis and mapping of prevalence rate of tuberculosis in Ghana. Scientific African, 7:e00307.
Background Global fight against tuberculosis (TB) has received increasing attention over the years. However, the disease remains one of the top-most global health problems, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ghana.Aims This paper examined geographical (regional) and seasonal distribution of TB cases providing relative risk of TB exposure in Ghana and step by step procedure to perform the analysis.Methods and material We modelled reported TB cases between 2015 and 2018 using wavelet analysis and applied maximum covariance analysis (MCA) to determine regional and seasonal patterns and the risk of TB exposure in Ghana. This study is based on the old administrative regions of Ghana.Results More TB cases were recorded in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions and less cases in the rest of the regions. There is significant increase in the number of TB cases from 2015 to 2018. High number of TB cases is observed in the dry season relative to the rainy season. There is high variability in TB prevalence with high prevalence moving towards the Southern part of Ghana.Conclusion The study highlights that TB cases is clustered in space and time and that even at small spatial scale, differences in prevalence can be substantial. The prevelance of TB exposure is higher in the dry season relative to the rainy season. Hence, enough resources should be timely provided during the dry season as well as intensifying preventive strategies to control the spread of the disease.