Implicit Learning in a Card Prediction Task
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Wilson, S. & Hamlin, I. (2007) Implicit Learning in a Card Prediction Task, European Journal of Parapsychology, vol. 22, , pp. Mar-29,
Two experiments are described in which participants were asked to make predictions about which of four cards they would be presented with next. The order that the cards were presented in was governed by a non-salient underlying sequence, in one condition, and by a pseudo random-number generator in the other. In experiment one, playing cards were used, and no effects were found. In experiment two, Zener ESP cards were used and it was found that participants were more likely to make successful predictions in the sequence condition, but not the random condition. Furthermore, correct responses were associated with faster reaction times. We also found that extroversion was positively correlated with success in the sequence condition, as was the extent to which participants reported being guided by psychic forces. These results are discussed in terms of framing effects and task demands.