Anterior universal spine system for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a follow-up study using scoliometer, real-time ultrasound and radiographs.
Burwell, R. G.
Aujla, R. K.
Cole, A. A.
Pratt, R. K.
Webb, J. K.
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Burwell, R., Aujla, R., Cole, A., Kirby, A., Pratt, R., Webb, J. & Moulton, A. (2002) Anterior universal spine system for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a follow-up study using scoliometer, real-time ultrasound and radiographs., , vol. 4, no. 516, pp. 473-476, Amsterdam
Nine patients with AIS treated surgically with anterior USS instrumentation were examined by several methods pre-operatively and at each of 8 weeks, 1 year and 2 years after surgery (mean age 14.6 years, girls 7, boys 2, thoracolumbar 7, lumbar 1, thoracic 1, left 7, right 2). The methods used were (1) Scoliometer to measure angle of trunk inclinations (ATIs) in the standing forward bending position at each of 10 levels and converted to 18 levels by a computer program, (2) real-time ultrasound in the prone position of laminal rotations at each of 1 8 levels from TI-SI, and (3) anteroposterior radiographs in the standing erect position measured for each of Cobb angle, segmental vertebral rotation (Perdriolle) and segmental vertebral translation from the Ti-Si line (horizontal translation of each vertebral centroid from the T1-S1 line). The findings were plotted graphically and segmentally for each of Scoliometer ATJs, ultrasound laminal rotations, and radiographic vertebral rotations and translations. Findings. Graphical representation of the data shows that the improvement brought about by surgery is most clearly and consistently evident for segmental vertebral translation. The statistical analysis shows that the radiological parameters (Cobb angle, apical vertebral rotation and apical vertebral translation) and ultrasound spinal (laminal) rotation do not change detectably in follow-up. The Scoliometer ATI findings show an increase from 4 degrees (at 8 weeks) to 7 degrees (at 2 years) which is statistically significant. The evidence from this small sample of patients is consistent with the view that the compared with posterior USS, anterior USS surgery for AIS results in (1) similar initial rib hump correction, and (2) less rib hump reassertion during follow-up. More data are needed to evaluate these views.Research evidence suggests that UK consumers are facingsignificant problems with goods and services and are inneed of information and advice to avoid or redress suchsituations. Consumers are not always aware of their rightsnor where they can access consumer advice services. In2000, the Department of Trade and Industry launched theConsumer Support Network (CSN) programme in Great Britainto improve consumer access to expert, accurate andtimely advice. One challenge faced by these Networks andmany other agencies is to assess the needs of consumersfor consumer information and advice services. A needsassessment is required as a key element in the effectiveplanning and development of services in each Network at alocal level. The focus of the needs assessment at the locallevel is to encourage Networks to consider suitable solutions to meet the needs of people in their communities. This paper provides a review of the development of Consumer Support Networks in Great Britain and discusses the importance of needs assessment to service providers such as CSNs and other agencies. It reveals the complexity associated with conducting effective needs assessments including the various aspects of needs, consumer segmentation and characteristics of consumer information and advice. Further research is being carried out at Queen Margaret University College, UK, with a view to the development of a scientific model for the assessment of need for consumer information and advice services.