Preliminary study of a new real-time ultrasound method for measuring spinal and rib rotation in preoperative patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Burwell, R. G.
Aujla, R. K.
Cole, A. A.
Pratt, R. K.
Webb, J. K.
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Burwell, R., Aujla, R., Cole, A., Kirby, A., Pratt, R., Webb, J. & Moulton, A. (2002) Preliminary study of a new real-time ultrasound method for measuring spinal and rib rotation in preoperative patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis., , vol. 4, no. 516, pp. 262-266, Amsterdam
A portable ultrasound machine with a linear array transducer was used by one observer (ASK) to evaluate the reproducibility for each of spinal (laminal) rotation and rib rotation in 13 preoperative patients with AIS (thoracic 7, thoracolumbar 6, mean Cobb angle 50 degrees, right 9, left 4, age 15.4 years, girls 10). With the subject in a prone position and her head supported, readings of spinal (laminal) and rib rotations were made directly on the back at 18 and 12 levels respectively. The subject was repositioned after walking around the room and a second set of spinal and rib rotations obtained (repeats). Conclusious. Repositioning the patient significantly alters some single level readings of lam inal rotation and rib rotation. Although the mean average spinal rotation and rib rotation each have acceptable reproducibility, repositioning the patient significantly alters the findings. In the appraisal of surgery by ultrasound the positional change reported here for (I) single level laminal rotation and rib rotation, and (2) mean average rotation imposes caution on the interpretation of the findings. The method enables the axial spine-nh rotation differences to be evaluated which is the subject of a separate paper.Research evidence suggests that UK consumers are facingsignificant problems with goods and services and are inneed of information and advice to avoid or redress suchsituations. Consumers are not always aware of their rightsnor where they can access consumer advice services. In2000, the Department of Trade and Industry launched theConsumer Support Network (CSN) programme in Great Britainto improve consumer access to expert, accurate andtimely advice. One challenge faced by these Networks andmany other agencies is to assess the needs of consumersfor consumer information and advice services. A needsassessment is required as a key element in the effectiveplanning and development of services in each Network at alocal level. The focus of the needs assessment at the locallevel is to encourage Networks to consider suitable solutions to meet the needs of people in their communities. This paper provides a review of the development of Consumer Support Networks in Great Britain and discusses the importance of needs assessment to service providers such as CSNs and other agencies. It reveals the complexity associated with conducting effective needs assessments including the various aspects of needs, consumer segmentation and characteristics of consumer information and advice. Further research is being carried out at Queen Margaret University College, UK, with a view to the development of a scientific model for the assessment of need for consumer information and advice services.