Physical activity in multiple sclerosis: meeting the guidelines at the time of COVID-19 pandemic
Arntzen, Ellen Christin
van der Linden, Marietta
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Pedullà, L., Santoyo-Medina, C., Novotna, K., Moumdjian, L., Smedal, T., Arntzen, E.C., Van Der Linden, M.L., Learmonth, Y., Kalron, A., Güngör, F., Nedeljkovic, U., Kos, D., Jonsdottir, J., Coote, S. and Tacchino, A. (2023) ‘Physical activity in multiple sclerosis: meeting the guidelines at the time of the covid-19 pandemic’, Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 47(2), pp. 112–121. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1097/NPT.0000000000000430.
Background and Purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) helps to reduce the severity of physical and mental symptoms and improves quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Based on current evidence and expert opinion, the recent MS guidelines recommend at least 150 min/week of PA. This study presents the results of a survey analysing whether and how PwMS met the guidelines before and during pandemic. Methods: We developed and disseminated an international online survey between December 2020 and July 2021, investigating changes in self-reported PA type, duration, frequency and intensity due to the COVID-19 outbreak in PwMS with differing disability levels. Results: Among respondents (n=3810), 3725 were eligible. The proportion of those who conducted at least one activity decreased with increasing disability level at both time-points (pre and during). Overall 60% of respondents met the guidelines before the pandemic (mild: 64.43%; moderate: 51.53%; severe: 39.34%; X2(2)=109.13, p<0.01); a reduction of ~10% occurred during pandemic in all disability groups (mild: 54.76%; moderate: 42.47%; severe: 29.48%; X2(2)=109.67, p<0.01). Respondents with higher disability participated more in physical therapy and less in walking, cycling and running at both time-points. Most respondents reported practicing PA at a moderate intensity at both time-points; frequency and duration of sessions decreased as disability level increased. Discussion and Conclusions: The percentage of those meeting the guidelines reduced with increasing disability level and during the pandemic. PA type and intensity varied widely across the disability categories. Interventions accounting for disability level are required to enable more PwMS to reap the benefits.