The indirect effects of transformational leadership in soccer programmes for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals: Need satisfaction as a mechanism towards personal development.
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Donnelly, J., Arthur, R., Arthur, C. and Cowan, D. (2023) ‘The indirect effects of transformational leadership in soccer programmes for socio-economically disadvantaged individuals: Need satisfaction as a mechanism towards personal development’, International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, p. 174795412311586. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/17479541231158693.
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of coach transformational leadership (TL) on the current lives of socio-economically disadvantaged individuals within a sport-based education programme. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: 159 participants completed questionnaires on the perceptions of their lead coaches’ TL, perceived basic need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, relatedness) in relation to programme attendance, and feelings of resilience and life-satisfaction in their current life. Results: PROCESS analysis revealed that all differentiated TL behaviours (but high-performance expectations) had a positive indirect effect on outcomes (resilience and life-satisfaction) via competence and a negative indirect effect on outcomes via relatedness. High-performance expectations demonstrated a direct effect on life satisfaction. Conclusion: The results demonstrate how distinct coach transformational behaviours impact differently on the lives of disadvantaged individuals within a sports-based education programme. The differentiated conceptualisation of TL revealed nuanced results, furthering our understanding of how each TL interacts with the three basic psychological needs. Finally, our results demonstrate the significance competence may hold in transferring the effect of different transformational behaviours onto the everyday lives of disadvantaged individuals.