Sex differences in stroke metrics among Southeast Asian countries: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
Hwong, Wen Yea
Bots, Michiel L
Law, Wan Chung
Musa, Kamarul Imran
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Hwong, W.Y., Bots, M.L., Selvarajah, S., Sivasampu, S., Reidpath, D.D., Law, W.C., Musa, K.I. and Vaartjes, I. (2019) ‘Sex differences in stroke metrics among Southeast Asian countries: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015’, International Journal of Stroke, 14(8), pp. 826–834. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1747493019832995.
Background Sex differences in cardiovascular diseases generally disadvantage women, particularly within developing regions. Aims This study aims to examine sex-related differences in stroke metrics across Southeast Asia in 2015. Furthermore, relative changes between sexes are compared from 1990 to 2015. Methods Data were sourced from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Incidence and mortality from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were explored with the following statistics derived: (1) women-to-men incidence/mortality ratio and (2) relative percentage change in rate. Results Women had lower incidence and mortality from stroke compared to men. Notable findings include higher ischemic stroke incidence for women at 30–34 years in high-income countries (women-to-men ratio: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 16.2 in Brunei and 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 3.2 in Singapore) and the largest difference between sexes for ischemic stroke mortality in Vietnam and Myanmar across most ages. Within the last 25 years, greater reductions for ischemic stroke metrics were observed among women compared to men. Nevertheless, women below 40 years in some countries showed an increase in ischemic stroke incidence between 0.5% and 11.4%, whereas in men, a decline from −4.2% to −44.2%. Indonesia reported the largest difference between sexes for ischemic stroke mortality; a reduction for women whereas an increase in men. For hemorrhagic stroke, findings were similar: higher incidence among young women in high-income countries and greater reductions for stroke metrics in women than men over the last 25 years. Conclusions Distinct sex-specific differences observed across Southeast Asia should be accounted in future stroke preventive guidelines.