Contextualising health inequities and respiratory infections-associated with household air pollution among children: present and future challenges for maternal and children mortality reductions in Tanzania'
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Background: Health inequities and exposure to household air pollution from unprocessed fuel for cooking has become a significant public health concerns and threats in Tanzania. 85 percent of Tanzanian people use biomass fuel for cooking, heating, and lighting their homes, and is more frequently used in rural areas than urban areas. Exposure attributed to household air pollution is a major contribution to morbidity and health illness among young children particularly under-five children. The growing evidence shows that in 2016, the total number of adults (male and female) died in relation to air pollution from solid fuels for cooking was 8.49 percent (33,024). Of those deaths, 7.80 percent (16,221) were male while 9.28 percent (16,221) were female. While deaths related to HAP among under-five children was 8.51 percent (9,236) and 8.14 percent (792,678.1) disability-adjusted life years. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of health inequities and household air pollution on maternal and children under-five years old and understand the consequent impact on mortality rates reduction in Tanzania. Methods: Narrative literature review study that sought to evaluate the impacts of health inequity and household air pollution on maternal and children under-five years old and understand the consequent impact on mortality rates reduction in Tanzania. Electronic database search was performed for the current studies from 2005 to 2021. The electronic search included using google scholar, BMJ open Journals, PubMed, Science Direct, and BioMed to identify relative literature reviews both qualitative and quantitative reviews and grey papers. Results, the study found that solid fuel for cooking is associated with health illness (such as respiratory infections and pneumonia) among under-five children and adverse birth outcomes (e.g. pregnancy complication, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth). I found also the risk factors associated with health illness and mortality among under-five years old are strongly linked to poor housing condition, gender inequality, socioeconomic status, and geographic disparities.