A randomised trial of the impact of energy density and texture of a meal on food and energy intake, satiation, satiety, appetite and palatability responses in healthy adults
Pritchard, Sarah J.
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Pritchard, S., Davidson, I., Jones, J. & Bannerman, E. (2014) A randomised trial of the impact of energy density and texture of a meal on food and energy intake, satiation, satiety, appetite and palatability responses in healthy adults, Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, , pp. 768-775,
Background & aims: Texture modified diets may be enriched to optimise the opportunity for individuals to meet their required energy intakes; however there is insufficient evidence supporting this strategy. Thus we sought to investigate the effect of texture and energy density on food (g) and energy intakes (kcal), appetite (satiation and satiety), and palatability in healthy adults. Methods: A single blind within-subjects randomised crossover design, where 33 healthy adults consumed a test meal with either its texture and/or energy density altered, until satiation was reached whilst rating their appetite parameters. Subsequent intakes were recorded in a food diary to determine the effect of the treatments on satiety and identify any evidence of energy compensation. Results: Test meal energy intakes (kcal) were significantly higher with energy enrichment of both meals (standard texture; 315 kcal and texture modified; 303 kcal (p = 0.001)) and remained higher over the day for both (260 kcal/d and, 225 kcal/d respectively (p < 0.05)). Area under the curve (AUC) did not differ between meals for hunger, fullness, or desire to eat however palatability was significantly reduced with texture modification. Conclusions: Enriching meals (standard texture and texture modified) is an effective method to increase short term energy intakes in healthy adults over a 24 h period and may have application to optimise energy intakes in a clinical setting. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT00123456. 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.