Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles
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Barbero, M., Cescon, C., Tettamanti, A., Leggero, V., Macmillan, F., Coutts, F. & Gatti, R. (2013) Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 14, , ,
Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject's trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped.In this volume a range of distinguished contributors provide an original analysis of the book in Scotland during a period that has been until now greatly under-researched and little understood.The issues covered by this volume include the professionalisation of publishing, its scale, technological developments, the role of the state, including the library service, the institutional structure of the book in Scotland, industrial relations, union activity and organisation, women and the Scottish book, and the economics of publishing. Separate chapters cover Scottish publishing and literary culture, publishing genres, the art of print culture, distribution, and authors and readers. The volume also includes an innovative use of illustrative case studies.