Effects of cytotoxic agents on functional integrity and antioxidant enzymes in clonal beta-cells.
Picton, S. F.
McCluskey, Jane T.
Flatt, P. R.
McClenaghan, N. H.
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Picton, S., McCluskey, J., Flatt, P. & McClenaghan, N. (2002) Effects of cytotoxic agents on functional integrity and antioxidant enzymes in clonal beta-cells., Diabetes & metabolism, vol. 28, , pp. 3S70-7; discussion 3S108,
Effects of cytotoxic agents and hydrogen peroxide were examined using pancreatic BRIN-BD11 cells and the parental insulinoma RINm5F cell line. Cell viability was determined using the MTT colorimetric assay and the TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptosis and acridine orange assay was used to determine levels of apoptosis versus necrosis. RT-PCR studies were employed to investigate the effects of the toxins on the expression of antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionine peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT). Streptozotocin, hydrogen peroxide, alloxan and ninhydrin exerted time- and concentration-dependent toxic effects on BRIN-BD11 and RINm5F cells. RT-PCR showed that 90 minutes exposure of BRIN-BD11 cells or RINm5F cells to 5 mM ninhydrin down regulates SOD, GPX and CAT antioxidative enzymes. Glutathionine peroxidase gene expression was also down regulated in both types of cell by hydrogen peroxide. There were no significant differences in antioxidant gene expression after exposure to the other toxins under the conditions employed. TUNEL assay revealed that streptozotocin (8 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (125 microM) had no significant effect on the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. However after exposure to ninhydrin (5 mM) almost 100% of the non-viable BRIN-BD11 cells and around 50% of the RINm5F cells were dying by apoptosis. With the BRIN-BD11 cells there was around a 30% increase in the number of apoptotic cells compared with 50% in the RINm5F cells after exposure to alloxan (16 mM). The results indicate multiple effects of cytotoxic agents on functional integrity and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in clonal beta-cells.