Haemodialysis and Vascular Access in the End Stage Kidney Disease
Siddiqui, Muhammad A.
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The efficiency of haemodialysis treatment relies on a functional status of vascular access. A vascular access makes life-saving haemodialysis treatments possible. The efficiency of haemodialysis treatment relies on a functional status of vascular access. The purpose of this review was to discuss the role of haemodialysis and vascular access in end stage kidney disease. Vascular access and its related problems represent the main factors that determine a rise in the rate of incidence of the disease among haemodialysis patients and, consequently, a rise in the healthcare expenses. Vascular access can be divided into three categories: arteriovenous fistula, central venous catheter and arteriovenous graft. Central venous catheter has a number of disadvantages, including a considerable risk of infection and mortality. It also has negative implications for the use of a fistula for dialysis. In contrast, arteriovenous fistula is the most beneficial method, as it has a low risk of infection and mortality, and can ensure long-term functional access. Furthermore, there are three configurations of native arteriovenous fistula that can be used for haemodialysis providing flexibility of approach depending on risk factors of the individual patient.