Sociopolitical Determinants of International Health Policy
De Vos, Pol
Van der Stuyft, Patrick
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De Vos, P. & Van der Stuyft, P. (2015) Sociopolitical Determinants of International Health Policy, International Journal of Health Services, vol. 45, , pp. 363-377,
For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector.We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive public logic- is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions.