Physical Examination Tools Used to Identify Swollen and Tender Lower Limb Joints in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Scoping Review
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Fellas, A., Singh-Grewal, D., Santos, D. & Coda, A. (2018) Physical Examination Tools Used to Identify Swollen and Tender Lower Limb Joints in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Scoping Review. Arthritis, 2018, [Article ID 3408162].
Background. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common form of rheumatic disease in childhood and adolescents, affecting between 16 and 150 per 100,000 young persons below the age of 16. The lower limb is commonly affected in JIA, with joint swelling and tenderness often observed as a result of active synovitis. Objective. The objective of this scoping review is to identify the existence of physical examination (PE) tools to identify and record swollen and tender lower limb joints in children with JIA. Methods. Two reviewers individually screened the eligibility of titles and abstracts retrieved from the following online databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Studies that proposed and validated a comprehensive lower limb PE tool were included in this scoping review. Results. After removal of duplicates, 1232 citations were retrieved, in which twelve were identified as potentially eligible. No studies met the set criteria for inclusion. Conclusion. Further research is needed in developing and validating specific PE tools for clinicians such as podiatrists and other allied health professionals involved in the management of pathological lower limb joints in children diagnosed with JIA. These lower limb PE tools may be useful in conjunction with existing disease activity scores to optimise screening of the lower extremity and monitoring the efficacy of targeted interventions.