Role of eating frequency and macronutrient content of in-between-meal snacks incompliance with a low fatdietary advice in overweight men aged 25-50 years
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Zaveri, S. (2007) Role of eating frequency and macronutrient content of in-between-meal snacks incompliance with a low fatdietary advice in overweight men aged 25-50 years, no. 257.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly. Eating frequency has been shown to be inversely related to body weight status and appetite control. In addition, macronutrients have a role to play in appetite control, as protein has shown to be more satiating than either carbohydrate or fat. This dietary intervention study aimed to assess the impact of increasing daily eating frequency (EF), by providing either high carbohydrate (HC), high protein (HP), high fat (HF) snacks, or no snacks (control, C) on energy intake (EI), hunger ratings (HR), body weight status and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks in 59 healthy overweight to moderately obese Scottish men. Subjects were also followed up at 24 weeks (12 weeks post intervention). The HC (n = 14) and HF (n = 14) groups did not show a significant change in EF, HR, EI, body weight and % body fat at 6, 12 and 24 weeks compared to baseline. In contrast, the HP group (n = 18) showed a significant increase in the EF compared to HC group at 12 weeks, however, this did not result in a corresponding increase in EI, body weight or % body fat. Additionally, at 12 weeks, HP group tended to feel less hungry compared to baseline and HC group. However, the difference in the EF in HP group was not sustained after removing the under-reporters (URs). The C group (n = 13) showed a significant increase in HR at 12 weeks and an increase in % body fat at 24 weeks. There was no change in metabolic parameters in any study groups in the total sample. However, after removing the URs, there was a significant increase in total cholesterol level in HC group and a significant decrease in triglycerides level in control group. The study demonstrates that addition of extra energy, in the form of snacks, to the habitual diet may be compensated at the subsequent meals and does not result in an increase in EI and body weight. Including snacks that are healthy and of a reasonable portion size may help in maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle.