Investigation into the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and nutritional knowledge among cardiac rehabilitation patients in NHS Lothian
Morrin, A. (2015) Investigation into the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and nutritional knowledge among cardiac rehabilitation patients in NHS Lothian, no. 72.
Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death and ill-health in Scotland. There is a growing need for effective cardiac rehabilitation programmes to help patients successfully self-manage their condition. A Mediterranean-style diet is recommended in the secondary prevention of CHD. Evidence has shown that adherence to a Mediterranean diet can be determined by factors such as nutritional knowledge and social deprivation. The aims of this study were 1) to investigate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and nutritional knowledge among cardiac rehabilitation patients and 2) to identify the relationship between these two variables and participants' levels of deprivation. Methods: Participants were recruited at their initial cardiac rehabilitation assessment. Baseline measurements of adherence to a Mediterranean diet were assessed using the 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS-14) and participants' baseline nutritional knowledge was measured using a validated 100-item, four-section nutritional knowledge questionnaire (NKQ). Participants' postcodes were collected and area-based levels of deprivation were determined using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Results: A significant positive association was found between participants' SIMD rank and MEDAS-14 scores (r = 0.792, p<0.01), as was a significant positive correlation between SIMD rank and the 'sources of nutrients' section scores of the NKQ (r = 0.636, p<0.05). There was no relationship found between SIMD rank and total NKQ score, nor was a relationship found between participants' MEDAS-14 and NKQ scores. Conclusions: These findings are in line with previous studies that highlight the existence of a social gradient in dietary quality and nutritional knowledge. Non-significant results may have occurred due to small sample size. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence for associations between dietary quality and nutritional knowledge and their determinants in Scottish populations. Key Words: Cardiac rehabilitation, Mediterranean diet, nutritional knowledge, social deprivation