The effects of sage (Salvia officinalis) on cognitive and vascular function in healthy young adults
Lee, D. (2017) The effects of sage (Salvia officinalis) on cognitive and vascular function in healthy young adults, no. 71.
BACKGROUND: Sage (Salvia officinalis) has been shown to have pharmacological properties that can improve memory and lower blood pressure due to its phytochemicals that contain anticholinesterase, antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Despite recognition of its acute effects associated with Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease in older populations, the effect of sage on cognitive and vascular function in healthy young adults is not yet established. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the antioxidant and phenolic content of the Menoforce sage tablet. The within-subject study design was conducted to examine the effect of sage on cognitive performance and vascular function at baseline, midpoint and endpoint over a fourweek treatment. METHODS: The sage extracts were obtained by methods of ethanol extractions and the measurement of its antioxidant level and total phenolic content were determined using the electron-transfer based assay. The cognitive function was measured using three computerised tests- Stroop, Corsi block-tapping and digit span test, whereas the vascular function was assessed using a non-invasive Vicorder to measure arterial stiffness with pulse wave velocity. RESULTS: Statistical outcomes show that sage did not produce significant differences from baseline to endpoint for both cognitive and vascular function, and they were the Stroop correct task (p = 0.819), Corsi block-tapping (p = 0.197), digit span (p = 0.914), pulse wave velocity (p = 0.93). However, there were significant outcomes for Stroop reaction time (p = 0.001) and time effects (p < 0.0005), as well as a correlation between weight and pulse wave velocity at endpoint (p = 0.008). Overall cognitive scores improved and pulse wave velocity reduced at endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate improved cognitive and vascular function over the four-week sage intake in healthy young adults. Evidence suggested that longer sage intake might enhance cognitive and vascular function. Key words: Sage, antioxidant, cognitive, vascular, young adults