A systematic review of the available literature from 1990 to 2014, investigating the effects of age and gender on tongue strength.
(2015) A systematic review of the available literature from 1990 to 2014, investigating the effects of age and gender on tongue strength., no. 79.
The aim of this literature review is to examine the effects that age and gender may have on tongue strength, using the maximum isometric pressure generated by the anterior portion of the tongue against the hard palate. This search was confined to articles published between 1990 and 2014, contained within the following databases available through Queen Margaret University: SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, and MEDLINE via Web of Knowledge. A final cohort of 19 articles was generated, taken from the original 117 articles located. The combined results of studies included in the final cohort, all of which included the maximum isometric tongue pressure measurements of the participants involved, showed a clear downwards trend in tongue strength throughout the lifespan for both men and women. Individually, the studies showed little difference in maximum isometric tongue pressure measurements between the male and female participants, and results were varied. These findings suggest that although there is a difference in tongue strength, it is not clinically significant. The results of the 19 articles scrutinised showed no definitive answer in regards to the effect of gender on tongue strength throughout adulthood; however, they did highlight the fact that this is an area that may benefit from additional, more in-depth examination. Limitations and variations of these studies have been examined, and a possible layout for a standardised study has been detailed, using Vanderwegen's (2013) article as a base.