A comparative analysis of the contextual factors that were associated with Bangladesh and Zimbabwe achieving relatively high rates of contraceptive prevalence.
Background: Family planning is termed one of the best investments a country can make to improve women’s lives by decreasing unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Hence, many countries have invested in the promotion of family planning by strengthening their family planning programmes. However, despite this, there are currently 214 million women in low and middle-income countries who would like to prevent pregnancy but are not using any modern method of contraception. However, Bangladesh and Zimbabwe are two countries that have shown trends of an increased contraceptive uptake over the years despite their slowed economic growth. Aim: To summarize the contextual factors that are associated with an increased contraceptive uptake in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. Study Design: A review of literature (Desk Review). Databases: CINAHL, SCOPUS and Medline. Review Methods: The selected studies were published from 1994 to 2018 and were focused on family planning/contraceptive use in Zimbabwe and Bangladesh. The measure evaluation reproductive Health programme conceptual framework was used to organize the study findings and discussion. Results/Findings: 287 articles were retrieved and 19 made the final studies selection. Of the 19 studies,16 were quantitative studies and 3 qualitative studies. It was found that women’s education, older age, place of residence (urban), desire to delay pregnancy/stop childbearing, marital status, male influence – such as discussing FP with husband, being employed, access to FP services, FP workers and FP promotion were the most significant factors influencing contraceptive uptake in both countries. Conclusion& recommendations: To increase contraceptive uptake well thought out information, education and communication (IEC) programmes must be instituted that targets both males and females in rural and urban regions. Further, family planning services must be easily accessible, acceptable, free or extremely low cost and culturally sensitive. Keywords: Contraceptive prevalence, Contextual factors, Unmet need, Bangladesh, Zimbabwe.