2D:4D ratio and its relation to spatial Awareness, competitiveness and aggression in contact and non-contact sports
Background- The measurement between the index finger (second finger) and the ring finger (fourth finger) can be used to calculate the 2D:4D ratio. The ratio is a sexual dimorphic trait which is due to androgen exposure. The volume of this exposure which can be of testosterone or oestrogen when a baby is in the womb can have an effect on many different features such as finger length, size of nose and behavioral traits. Behavioral traits such as competitiveness, aggression and spatial awareness have been hypothesized to be closely linked to 2D:4D ratio. This hypothesis has also been lead to believe that those who have a low 2D:4D ratio are more aggressive and competitive which can allow them to have an advantage in sports. Method- A total of 40 QMU undergraduate students were recruited to participate in the study. Out of the 40 participants the gender was split equally (20 females and 20 males) and all were from 4 different sports teams which were either from a contact sport (hockey and football) or a noncontact sport team (running and cheerleading). All four teams were required to fill out three different questionnaires (Buss and Perry’s aggression questionnaire, Santa Barbra’s solids test and a competitiveness questionnaire). The 2D:4D ratios were then recorded using digital calipers then calculated. All the data from the measurements and questionnaires were entered into excel and SPSS. Results- The results from this study showed that men had a higher aggression score in comparison to females; meanwhile females had a smaller 2D:4D ratio in comparison to males. The results from this study revealed that long distance runners have the lowest aggression but highest competitiveness scores in comparison to football, hockey players and cheerleading. The results found that non-contact sports where more spatially aware in comparison to contact sports teams Conclusion – The results from this study have shown conflicted data but the results do not support the popular hypothesis of the relationship of aggression, competitiveness and spatial awareness in relation to 2D:4D ratio despite males are found to be more aggressive than females. Keywords- 2D:4D ratio, Competitiveness, aggression, spatial awareness, Buss and Perry questionnaire, testosterone.