Using two models of workplace facilitation to create conditions for development of a person-centred culture: A participatory action research study
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Hardiman, M. & Dewing, J. (2019) Using two models of workplace facilitation to create conditions for development of a person-centred culture: A participatory action research study. Journal of Clinical Nursing (In Press).
Aims and objectives: To examine facilitation in workplace learning where nurses are focused on creating person-centred cultures; to provide a framework for novice and proficient facilitators/practitioners to learn in and from their own workplaces and practices; to provide the conditions where practitioners can gain an understanding of the culture and context within their own workplace. Background: Evidence suggests that person-centred cultures depend on purposeful, facilitated practice based learning activities. For person-centredness to become more meaningful to nursing leaders in their daily work, focus must be placed on their acquisition and use of facilitation skills. The facilitation framework ‘Critical Companionship’ remains an exemplar in the development of expert facilitation skills. Two sequential facilitation models were developed as ‘steps’ towards Critical Companionship, as a framework for novice and proficient facilitators and practitioners to learn in and from their own workplaces and practices. Design and Methods: This research, situated in a critical social science paradigm, drew on participatory action research to devise, explore and refine two facilitation models: Critical Allies and Critical Friends. The researcher adopted an insider approach to work with five nursing leaders, which was subsequently reported using the EQUATOR Guidelines for Best Practice in the reporting of Participatory Action Research. Results: Show the complexity of enabling facilitation within the workplace. Four themes and twelve sub-themes emerged from the data that describe the attributes needed to facilitate workplace learning and reveal that mangers can have an active role in enabling person-centred culture development. Conclusions: This research adds to the body of knowledge on developing person-centred culture. It offers practical stepping stones for novice and proficient facilitators to enable embodiment of the skills necessary to facilitate learning in person-cultures. The models offer a workplace friendly pathway with practical methods and further contribute to our understanding of how we create person-centred cultures. Relevance to Clinical Practice Facilitation of practice development and workplace learning remains the most effective methods to develop person-centred cultures. This research introduces a pathway for clinical leaders/managers to become facilitators with their own teams, maximising the impact on the culture where care is delivered.